Home > P-cumylphenol > P-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4)

P-cumylphenol

  • Product Name:

    P-cumylphenol
  • Model No:

    CAS NO.:

    599-64-4



599-64-4 Product Description

Chemical Name:P-cumylphenol

Synonyms:paracumilphenol

CAS NO.:599-64-4

Molecular :C15H16O

Molecular Weight:212.29;

Chemical Properties:

Appearance:White Crytal Powder

Density:1.115;

Freeaing Point:70-73℃.

Boiling Point:335℃.

Flash Point:160℃.

EINECS: 209-968-0
Index of Refraction: 1.573
IUPAC Name: 4-(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)phenol
Enthalpy of Vaporization: 60.49 kJ/mol
Vapour Pressure: 4.98E-05 mmHg at 25°C

Assay:99% MIN.(GC)

Package:25KG/bags

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides. Combustible.

Use: It can be used forepoxy resin, polycarbonate molecular weight adjustment agent, capping agent; It can be used as a modifier of the phenolic resin, epoxy resin; as antioxidants in plastics, lubricants, rubber products; It can be used in the production of alkylphenol-type non-ionic surfactant; the main application as a pesticide emulsifier; It can also be used for the production of fungicides, disinfectants and other refined products.

substance:
Following is the molecular structure of  4-Cumylphenol (599-64-4):
599-64-4 Uses
4-Cumylphenol (599-64-4) is used as surfactant raw materials. Pairs of cumene-based phenol and ethylene oxide addition to be non-ionic surfactant. Fungicides used. The strong anti-mildew product sterilization. Of mineral oil and spindle oil affinity good, Fungicides can be used as lubrication. Compared with the PCP, toxicity is much smaller and does not stimulate the smell, but also can be used for timber sterilization, anti-mildew. Used as a resin raw materials. Made of alkyl phenol and formaldehyde resin, used in coatings, adhesives and so on. The product is also used as a molecular regulator of epoxy resin, reactive diluents, incremental agent; with advanced fatty acids, phosphoric acid esters, etc. produce used plasticizer and stabilizer; also serves as the polycarbonate of molecular weight regulator agent.
599-64-4 Production
4-Cumylphenol (599-64-4) is formed by phenol and alpha methyl styrene condensation. Will join phenol and sulfuric acid, reaction pot, stir cool, alpha methyl styrene. With sodium hydroxide, steamed out not the reaction of phenol and alpha methyl styrene is to use al.were eligible product. Yield is 90%.
599-64-4 Toxicity Data With Reference
orl-frg LD50:335 mg/kg
GTPZAB    Gigiena Truda i Professionalnye Zabolevaniia. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. 12 (12)(1968),44.
Consensus Reports
Reported in EPA TSCA Inventory.

599-64-4 Safety Profile
poison by ingestion. when heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating vapors.
safety information of  4-cumylphenol (599-64-4):
hazard codes: xi
xi: irritant
risk statements: 36/37/38
36/37/38: irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
safety statements: 24/25-37/39-26
24/25: avoid contact with skin and eyes
37/39: wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection
26: in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
rtecs: sl1942450

Process for preparing p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4)
A process for preparing p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) which comprises reacting phenol and methylstyrene in the presence of an inorganic solid acid catalyst having an acid point of an acid strength Ho of up to -3, for example, activated clay and recovering the aimed p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) from the reaction mixture thus obtained by distilling the same while introducing an inert gas such as nitrogen and/or steam into the distillation system is disclosed. The p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) thus obtained has a high purity and an improved color compared with those obtained by conventional methods.

Renal Tubular Cyst Formation in Newborn Rats Treated with p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4)
Abstract In this study, we investigated the sequential changes in the development of renal tubular cysts in newborn rats treated with p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) (PCP). Fifteen animals per sex were treated orally with 300 mg/kg/day of PCP for up to 18 days from postnatal day (PND) 4 and were sacrificed on PNDs 8, 12, 19 and 22 and after a 7 day recovery period. On PNDs 8 and 12, slight dilatation of the collecting ducts was frequently observed in the medulla and slight papillary necrosis was also noted in some cases. These dilated collecting ducts were lined with slightly hyperplastic epithelial cells. On PNDs 19 and 22, multiple large cystic changes arising from the collecting ducts in the outer medulla were seen. These cystically dilated ducts were also lined with hyperplastic epithelial cells. During the dosing period, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the collecting duct epithelium was higher in the PCP-treated group than in the control group at all time points. After a 7 day recovery period, the cystic change still remained, although the cell density was decreased and the epithelial cells became flattened. On the other hand, basophilic tubules with peritubular lymphoid cell infiltration were multifocally observed in the cortex. In conclusion, PCP induced multiple renal cysts that developed in the collecting ducts of the outer medulla in neonatal rats, and it is suggested that epithelial cell proliferation may play some roles in the induction of cystic lesions.

STUDY ON A NEW SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY OF HIGH-ADHESIVE p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) FORMALDEHYDE RESIN BY SOLID ACID CATALYSIS
Using p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) and formaldehyde as raw material and solid acid(cation exchange resin) as catalyst,based on orthogonal experiment,a new synthesis technology of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) formaldehyde resin has been developed through processes such as catalyst condensation,filtration,and distillation etc.The final product is vicious reddle liquid,whose pH is approximate to 7.The product is waterproof,acid-resistant,alkali proof and steady,which is mainly applied to fields such as electrical insulators,paint and rubber product etc.
Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometric Analysis of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) and Bisphenol A in Environmental Waters in Nagoya City
Abstract A highly sensitive analytical method was developed for the determination of para-cumylphenol (PCP) and bisphenol A (BPA) by tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and was applied to the measurement of environmental water. The method detection limits of PCP and BPA for seawater were 2.2 ng/L and 1.9 ng/L, respectively, and the corresponding values for river water were 5.2 ng/L and 5.0 ng/L. Various water samples in Nagoya city were found to contain PCP and BPA at concentrations ranging from less than 5.2 to 160 ng/L and 33 to 290 ng/L, respectively.

Effect of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) on the Mold Resistance of Modified Soybean Flour Adhesive and Poplar Plywood

Soy-based adhesive's sensitivity to microbial attack is an aspect that restricts its future application. In an attempt to combat microbial attacks, several preservatives have been evaluated to determine their effects on mold resistance. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) was investigated by observing mold growth on modified soybean-flour adhesives and by evaluating the bonding strength and surface mold growth of bonded poplar plywood. Visual images, scanning electron microscopy, and tensile testing were used. The results showed that the initial microbial attack was delayed and the degree of attack was alleviated because of the preservatives. The bonding strength decreased in samples that contained p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) after the samples were exposed to high humidity. Additionally, no correlation was observed between the degree of microbial growth on the surface of the plywood and amount of the preservatives. These results revealed that it was feasible to incorporate p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) into soy-based adhesives as glue line treatment to improve the mold resistance. Finally, surface treatment of the veneer should be taken into consideration during the plywood manufacturing.

Method and device for producing p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) by rectifying phenol oil tar

The invention relates to a method and device for extracting p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) by taking phenol oil tar generated in a process of synthesizing phenol and acetone through a cumene process and operating a plurality of rectifying towers in series. According to the adoption of the method and the device, the phenol oil tar which pollutes the environment by burning is utilized, and a chemical substance, i.e., cumylphenol with multiples purposes is extracted from the phenol oil tar, so that the aims of changing waste into valuable and lowering the production cost of the p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) are fulfilled.

Brominated p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) flame-retardants for resin composition

Brominated p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) represented by the formula described hereinafter and derivative thereof represented by the formula (2) described hereinabove, process for the preparation of the same, and flame-retardant resin compositions containing the same, are disclosed. Those compounds are useful flame retardant, and can be blended with various thermosetting resins or thermoplastic resins to obtain flame retardant resin compositions.

carboxylation of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) to 5-cumyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid

Abstract The purpose of this work was to study carboxylation of alkali metal p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4)ates to the corresponding salts of 5-cumyl-2-hydroxybenzoic acid. It has been established by investigations of the effect of cations of alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium) on carboxylation of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) that sodium p-cumylphenolate is carboxylated rapidly and highly selective. It is shown that more than 0. 5% of moisture and 1. 0% of p-cumylphenyl and sodium hydroxide cause the carboxylation parameters to decline. The optimum conditions ensuring maximum yield (94. 8%) of sodium 5-cumyl-2-hydroxybenzoate on the p-cumylphenolate taken have been determined: temperature 150-155 degree C, carbon dioxide pressure 2. 2 MPa, reaction time 140 min.

selective dealkylation of p-cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) in the presence of cationite
p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) is a basic component of the so-called phenol resins, which are obtained as a by-product of the cumene method. Interest in the catalytic conversion
of p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) has increased in recent years in view of the utilization of this resin/i-3/. Its dealkylation to phenol and ~-methylstyrene would seem to be the
most promising procedure.
Calcium and zinc stearates can be successfully used in activating this process/4/.Continuing our investigations of this problem, we now report on a study of the catalytic
conversions of p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) in the presence of cationite Wofatite OK-80.The initial p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) had the fol]owing characteristics: b.p. 189-190 ~
(12 Torr); re,p, 72.5-73 ~ lit, /5/: b.p. 190 ~ (12 Tort), m.p. 73-73.5 ~ The Wofatite OK-80 cationite used was a product of the Bitterfeld Co., GDIL The experiments
were carried out in a static apparatus under stirring at 100-140 ~ and at a cationite to p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) ratio of 1 .' 2. The reaction products were analyzed
chromatographically and spectroscopically. Use wa~ made of the analitical and preparative version of the Carlo Erba and Specord 75 !R apparatus. Carbowax 20 M on
carrier II' SC' 60-80 M was used as stationary phase,Our investigations have shown that the Wofatite OK-80 cationite is reactive against p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4). The main reaction products are phenol and a mixture of isomeric dimers of ~-methylstyrene. Benzene, cumene and ~-methylstyrene were also identified in traces. The conversion of p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4)and the amounts of the main products at 100, 120 and 140 ~ are shown in Fig. 1 (a, b, c), depending on the time of experiment.
The results reveal that in our experimental conditions p-Cumylphenol(cas:599-64-4) is almost completely and selectively dealkylated to phenol and ~-methylstyrene (scheme 1),
which is dimerized to 1.1, 3-trimethyl-3-phenylindane, cis- and trans-2,4-diphenyl--4-methylpentene-2 and 2,4-diphenyl-4-methylpentane-1,
Among the dimeric products, as can be seen from Fig. Id, the dimer with an indane structure is present in the largest quantities, A linear dinner with a trans configuration
is also formed in substantial amounts,The experiment performed with pure a-methylstyrene at 140 oc confirms the   pronounced tendency of this alkenylbenzene ro dimerize in the presence of the cationite used. After 30 rain, ~-methylstyrene is converted into ], i, 3-trimethyl-a-phenylindane (Fig, 2, a), a crystalline product with re,p. 51-52 ~ The changes in the quantities of the isomeric dimers in the first five minutes (Fix. 2,b) of the experiments show

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cas:599-64-4 SAFETY DATA SHEETS

1.Identification

1.1GHS Product identifier

Product name 4-CUMYLPHENOL

1.2Other means of identification

Product number -
Other names P-CUMYLPHENOL

1.3Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use

Identified uses For industry use only. Intermediates
Uses advised against no data available

1.4Supplier's details

Company XiXisys.com
Address XiXisys.com
Telephone XiXisys.com
Fax XiXisys.com

1.5Emergency phone number

Emergency phone number -
Service hours Monday to Friday, 9am-5pm (Standard time zone: UTC/GMT +8 hours).

2.Hazard identification

2.1Classification of the substance or mixture

Acute toxicity - Oral, Category 4

Serious eye damage, Category 1

Specific target organ toxicity – repeated exposure, Category 2

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, short-term (Acute) - Category Acute 1

Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term (Chronic) - Category Chronic 1

2.2GHS label elements, including precautionary statements

Pictogram(s)    
Signal word

Danger

Hazard statement(s)

H302 Harmful if swallowed

H318 Causes serious eye damage

H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure

H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

Precautionary statement(s)
Prevention

P264 Wash ... thoroughly after handling.

P270 Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.

P280 Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection.

P260 Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.

P273 Avoid release to the environment.

Response

P301+P312 IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…if you feel unwell.

P330 Rinse mouth.

P305+P351+P338 IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

P310 Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor/…

P314 Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.

P391 Collect spillage.

Storage

none

Disposal

P501 Dispose of contents/container to ...

2.3Other hazards which do not result in classification

none

3.Composition/information on ingredients

3.1Substances

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number Concentration
4-CUMYLPHENOL 4-CUMYLPHENOL 599-64-4 none 100%

4.First-aid measures

4.1Description of necessary first-aid measures

General advice

Consult a physician. Show this safety data sheet to the doctor in attendance.

If inhaled

If breathed in, move person into fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. Consult a physician.

In case of skin contact

Wash off with soap and plenty of water. Consult a physician.

In case of eye contact

Rinse thoroughly with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and consult a physician.

If swallowed

Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water. Consult a physician.

4.2Most important symptoms/effects, acute and delayed

no data available

4.3Indication of immediate medical attention and special treatment needed, if necessary

/SRP:/ Immediate first aid: Ensure that adequate decontamination has been carried out. If patient is not breathing, start artificial respiration, preferably with a demand valve resuscitator, bag-valve-mask device, or pocket mask, as trained. Perform CPR if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated eyes with gently flowing water. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, lean patient forward or place on the left side (head-down position, if possible) to maintain an open airway and prevent aspiration. Keep patient quiet and maintain normal body temperature. Obtain medical attention. /Poisons A and B/

5.Fire-fighting measures

5.1Extinguishing media

Suitable extinguishing media

Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide.

5.2Specific hazards arising from the chemical

no data available

5.3Special protective actions for fire-fighters

Wear self-contained breathing apparatus for firefighting if necessary.

6.Accidental release measures

6.1Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures

Use personal protective equipment. Avoid dust formation. Avoid breathing vapours, mist or gas. Ensure adequate ventilation. Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Avoid breathing dust. For personal protection see section 8.

6.2Environmental precautions

Prevent further leakage or spillage if safe to do so. Do not let product enter drains. Discharge into the environment must be avoided.

6.3Methods and materials for containment and cleaning up

Pick up and arrange disposal. Sweep up and shovel. Keep in suitable, closed containers for disposal.

7.Handling and storage

7.1Precautions for safe handling

Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Avoid formation of dust and aerosols. Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.Provide appropriate exhaust ventilation at places where dust is formed. For precautions see section 2.2.

7.2Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities

Store in cool place. Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.

8.Exposure controls/personal protection

8.1Control parameters

Occupational Exposure limit values

no data available

Biological limit values

no data available

8.2Appropriate engineering controls

Handle in accordance with good industrial hygiene and safety practice. Wash hands before breaks and at the end of workday.

8.3Individual protection measures, such as personal protective equipment (PPE)

Eye/face protection

Safety glasses with side-shields conforming to EN166. Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU).

Skin protection

Wear impervious clothing. The type of protective equipment must be selected according to the concentration and amount of the dangerous substance at the specific workplace. Handle with gloves. Gloves must be inspected prior to use. Use proper glove removal technique(without touching glove's outer surface) to avoid skin contact with this product. Dispose of contaminated gloves after use in accordance with applicable laws and good laboratory practices. Wash and dry hands. The selected protective gloves have to satisfy the specifications of EU Directive 89/686/EEC and the standard EN 374 derived from it.

Respiratory protection

Wear dust mask when handling large quantities.

Thermal hazards

no data available

9.Physical and chemical properties

Physical state white to off-white Solid
Colour White to tan crystals
Odour Characteristic phenol odor
Melting point/ freezing point 160°C(lit.)
Boiling point or initial boiling point and boiling range 156°C(lit.)
Flammability no data available
Lower and upper explosion limit / flammability limit no data available
Flash point 54°C(lit.)
Auto-ignition temperature no data available
Decomposition temperature no data available
pH no data available
Kinematic viscosity no data available
Solubility no data available
Partition coefficient n-octanol/water (log value) log Kow = 4.12 (est)
Vapour pressure 2.5X10-5 mm Hg at 25°C (extrapolated)
Density and/or relative density 1.115
Relative vapour density no data available
Particle characteristics no data available

10.Stability and reactivity

10.1Reactivity

no data available

10.2Chemical stability

Stable under recommended storage conditions.

10.3Possibility of hazardous reactions

no data available

10.4Conditions to avoid

no data available

10.5Incompatible materials

no data available

10.6Hazardous decomposition products

When heated to decomposition it emits acrid acid and irritating vapors.

11.Toxicological information

Acute toxicity

  • Oral: LD50 Rat oral 1770 mg/kg bw
  • Inhalation: no data available
  • Dermal: no data available

Skin corrosion/irritation

no data available

Serious eye damage/irritation

no data available

Respiratory or skin sensitization

no data available

Germ cell mutagenicity

no data available

Carcinogenicity

no data available

Reproductive toxicity

no data available

STOT-single exposure

no data available

STOT-repeated exposure

no data available

Aspiration hazard

no data available

12.Ecological information

12.1Toxicity

  • Toxicity to fish: no data available
  • Toxicity to daphnia and other aquatic invertebrates: no data available
  • Toxicity to algae: no data available
  • Toxicity to microorganisms: no data available

12.2Persistence and degradability

AEROBIC: Phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)-, present at 100 mg/L, reached 0% of its theoretical BOD in 4 weeks using an activated sludge inoculum at 30 mg/L in the Japanese MITI test(1).

12.3Bioaccumulative potential

An estimated BCF of 240 was calculated in fish for phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)-(SRC), using an estimated log Kow of 4.12(1) and a regression-derived equation(1). According to a classification scheme(2), this BCF suggests the potential for bioconcentration in aquatic organisms is high(SRC). However, phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)- is reported to have low bioconcentration based on test results using catfish(3).

12.4Mobility in soil

Using a structure estimation method based on molecular connectivity indices(1), the Koc of phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)- can be estimated to be 2.9X10+4(SRC). According to a classification scheme(2), this estimated Koc value suggests that phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)- is expected to be immobile in soil. The estimated pKa of phenol, 4-(1-methyl-1-phenethyl)- is 10.0(3), indicating that this compound will exist partially in anion form in the environment and anions generally do not adsorb more strongly to soils containing organic carbon and clay than their neutral counterparts(4).

12.5Other adverse effects

no data available

13.Disposal considerations

13.1Disposal methods

Product

The material can be disposed of by removal to a licensed chemical destruction plant or by controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing. Do not contaminate water, foodstuffs, feed or seed by storage or disposal. Do not discharge to sewer systems.

Contaminated packaging

Containers can be triply rinsed (or equivalent) and offered for recycling or reconditioning. Alternatively, the packaging can be punctured to make it unusable for other purposes and then be disposed of in a sanitary landfill. Controlled incineration with flue gas scrubbing is possible for combustible packaging materials.

14.Transport information

14.1UN Number

ADR/RID: UN3077 IMDG: UN3077 IATA: UN3077

14.2UN Proper Shipping Name

ADR/RID: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.
IMDG: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.
IATA: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, SOLID, N.O.S.

14.3Transport hazard class(es)

ADR/RID: 9 IMDG: 9 IATA: 9

14.4Packing group, if applicable

ADR/RID: III IMDG: III IATA: III

14.5Environmental hazards

ADR/RID: yes IMDG: yes IATA: yes

14.6Special precautions for user

no data available

14.7Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the IBC Code

no data available

15.Regulatory information

15.1Safety, health and environmental regulations specific for the product in question

Chemical name Common names and synonyms CAS number EC number
4-CUMYLPHENOL 4-CUMYLPHENOL 599-64-4 none
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS) Listed.
EC Inventory Listed.
United States Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Listed.
China Catalog of Hazardous chemicals 2015 Not Listed.
New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Not Listed.
Philippines Inventory of Chemicals and Chemical Substances (PICCS) Listed.
Vietnam National Chemical Inventory Not Listed.
Chinese Chemical Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances (China IECSC) Listed.

16.Other information

Information on revision

Creation Date Aug 12, 2017
Revision Date Aug 12, 2017

Abbreviations and acronyms

  • CAS: Chemical Abstracts Service
  • ADR: European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
  • RID: Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail
  • IMDG: International Maritime Dangerous Goods
  • IATA: International Air Transportation Association
  • TWA: Time Weighted Average
  • STEL: Short term exposure limit
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50%
  • LD50: Lethal Dose 50%
  • EC50: Effective Concentration 50%

References

  • IPCS - The International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC), website: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.home
  • HSDB - Hazardous Substances Data Bank, website: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/newtoxnet/hsdb.htm
  • IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer, website: http://www.iarc.fr/
  • eChemPortal - The Global Portal to Information on Chemical Substances by OECD, website: http://www.echemportal.org/echemportal/index?pageID=0&request_locale=en
  • CAMEO Chemicals, website: http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/search/simple
  • ChemIDplus, website: http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp
  • ERG - Emergency Response Guidebook by U.S. Department of Transportation, website: http://www.phmsa.dot.gov/hazmat/library/erg
  • Germany GESTIS-database on hazard substance, website: http://www.dguv.de/ifa/gestis/gestis-stoffdatenbank/index-2.jsp
  • ECHA - European Chemicals Agency, website: https://echa.europa.eu/

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